Indus valley civilization aka Harappa civilization is an older civilization in south Asia. The factor about this civilization has found in many places in Indus river valley and Ghaggar-Hakra River which is considered as Indus River that is dried up now. Places like Harappa and Mohenjodaro which is located in Pakistan and Lothal, Dholavira and Kalibangan which is located in northwestern India, are the most famous places among them.
According to details that have been revealed now, the Indus valley civilization started 5700 years ago from now and Deteriorated 3300 years ago. These times equal to B.C 3700 and 1300 respectively. In the developed stage of the Indus valley civilization, there were urban features. Organized cities, advanced material culture, and advanced artworks are an example of it. Indus valley people had been keeping trade relationships with Arabic and Mesopotamia which were Contemporary civilizations.
Four stages of Harappa civilization had been named according to its Cultural levels. The early Ravi phase which is the first from them started 5700 years ago and existed until 4800 years. The second is called the Transitional Kot Diji phase. It was also started 4800 years ago and ended 4600 years ago. The third stage is the Mature phase and it started 4600 years ago and ended 3900 years ago. The last stage is the time during 3900 to 3300 years ago, that called the Late Declining phase. This all times has revealed from the radioactive carbon dating by the studies that have done.
However, according to a study posted in the scientific reports magazine, the beginning of the Indus valley civilization belongs to more past than this. Therefore this civilization had begun 8000 years ago.
An aim of the research that was done by a group of scientists from many Indian companies, was to get e opinion about the area that Indus valley civilization was spread. These researchers have come to their decision after a new excavation in Bhirrana, Haryana state India. It was recognized as an inhabited area, that was located around the old Sarasvati River.
Research has gone through factors took from these excavations. Remains of animals had been found from layers belonging to different cultural levels in that place. Among them, there were bones and teeth of animals like Domesticated cattle, goats, buffaloes, and sheep as well as animals that humans eat. Researchers were able to know the rain amount of that time according to the oxygen 18 (18C) isotopes contained in the phosphates in the bones and teeth of these animals, and from that, the way of weather changing in that area from time to time has reconstructed.
Also, the researchers have paid attention to the pieces of clay pots that have found from the excavations. These pieces of clay pots are dated using the timing method called optically stimulated luminescence. According to these researchers thought they have founded the oldest pieces of clay pots in the Indus valley civilization. From that, they were able to build the relationship between cultural patterns and climate in that Settlement.
A civilization that began 8000 years ago
This researches though is the timing of the data that founded in this place gives factors to the first stage of Bhirrana and Harappa settlement. The oldest factors found from this belongs to the time before 8350 years from today according to exact timing. (if it says the exact time it was before 8597 – 8171 years )according to these factors that belong to base stages is proves that there were Shepherd and Village level agricultural societies.
It is called the pre-Harappan Hakra phase and it was the oldest phase than the Early Harappan period that was considered as the oldest stage. It is between 9500 and 8000 years old today. Therefore early Harappan people made their first settlements before 9000 and 7000 years old today. Oxygen isotope analysis of the bones and teeth of animals of this period revealed that this was a period of intense monsoon rains.
Also, the dating of the excavated pottery dates to between 5120-4520 and 6185-5695.this second factor belongs to Early advanced Harappan civilization. Also according to its timing, the timing took from even down level which is the settlement that 8350 years old from today, the age is confirmed of that. Therefore Bhirrana is a place where factors found about the oldest settlement in the Gaggar-Hakra river valley.
And also from these excavations and excavations that did around this area the timing of Early Harappan (between 8000-6500 years ago today), early-advanced Harappan (between 6500-5000 years ago today), advanced Harappan (between 5000-2800 years ago today) has found.
How did the Indus valley end?
The ordinary idea is that the Indus valley civilization ended 3000 years ago. Climate change or long-term severe drought has been suggested for this. Mesopotamian and Yangtze river-based civilizations that coincided with the Indus Valley Civilization, destroyed because either Monsoon rains got weaken or drying because of a series of droughts spread throughout the Asian region about 4,200 years ago. But from this research more information about the way this condition affected the Indus valley civilization, reveals.
According to the research that we subjected, the way of climate changed in the Indus valley is clear. At the beginning of the civilization, there was a good environment to spread the human settlements and agricultural activities in the Sarasvati river valley. Between 9000-7000 years the monsoon rains increased and therefore the water for agriculture supplied.
However, the weakening of monsoon rains started 7000 years ago. Especially, even in the developed stage of Indus valley civilization, the monsoon was a period of gradual weakening. People in the valley used to weak monsoon rains. According to some facts that have founded from another place near to Bhirrana, they shift to cultivate plants that Drought tolerant like some kind of rice Millet varieties from Wheat and barley. But the harvest was lower from these plants.
These changes in the dependency system of the people have also contributed to the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization. Because of those huge Grain storages in main cities could not be maintained, and people used personal grain storage methods. Therefore situations like a Decrease in urbanization, decrease in population, abandonment of established settlements happened and facts for that have founded. The decline in the use of the Harappan script is a similar phenomenon. These are characteristics that help to identify Post-Harappan civilization.it is clear that the Indus valley civilization did not break down instantly it had been Deteriorating for a long time.
These researchers point out that there was a direct link between climate, agriculture, and subsistence during the Harappan civilization.