This civilization developed in Euphrates Tigris Rivers Valley. The region where these rivers are located belongs to Iraq. The meaning of the word of Mesopotamia is the country which is between two rivers.
Mesopotamia is located between the two rivers which are mentioned above. This civilization originated between 3100-2900 BC.
An ancient Mesopotamian clay tablet showing the Plowing occasion
The farmers who lived nearby the main city of Mesopotamia had been farming and animals husbandry. Due to the lack of rain in those areas, they carried river water to their farms through canals. The groud was ploughed using animals to prepare for cultivation.
Therefore they used ploughs made of metals and hoes made of rocks. What is grown there included grains, fruits, and vegetables. Wheat and barley were among the grains they cultivated.
A Mesopotamian Ziggurats Temple in Old Ur
The Mesopotamians worshipped nature as their god. Rain, wind, and flood were sacrificed as divinity. They believed that they lived to please the God who belongs to nature.
a) The head of this pantheon was a god named Anu.
b) The lord of the earth was called God Enki.
c) The God named Enlil was worshipped as the god of wine and agriculture.
Every city in Mesopotamia had an own God for each and every city. The word Ziggurats used to call the temple that was made to offer sacrifices to God. The priests in these temples had an important position in Mesopotamian society.
Naval vessels belonged to the Mesopotamian civilization
Mesopotamians were talented to trade in small ships sailing on the rivers. Things like food and drink, clothes were brought by this kind of ships. The Assyrians who lived in northern Mesopotamia were clever merchants. They did their trade via land. They used to carry merchandise on donkeys and go to trade. This is called a caravan.
Mesopotamian society was divided into four parts those are (1) Priests (2) Upper-class citizens (3) Lower class citizens (4) Slaves. Priests were the most powerful group of Mesopotamian society. They worked as doctors as well as religious works. The priests shaved their heads. They wore a coat made of sheepskin.
It was customary for upper-class men and women to wear gold Jewellery. Men grew their hair long. They had a long beard. The women wore clothes that covered one shoulder. Also, they had long hair. The lower classes lived comfortably in their own homes even though they did not live a life of luxury. They worked hard. Hence they got salaries. Their clothes and jewellery were not expensive.
Mesopotamian people made the world oldest character system. These characters are called cuneiform. Clay frames were used to write cuneiform. The letters were written on a piece of wood sharpened on wet clay tablets. The Mesopotamian writing system, which initially began as a drawing, later developed into a font system. There were lots of things written on these clay frames. Trade details were the main ones among them.
The heroic story which was written by Gilgamesh in cuneiform is considered to be the oldest literary work in the world. Although it was difficult to write on clay tablets, the Mesopotamians did it skillfully. Steps were taken to send some of the letters written on the clay tablets in clay envelopes to the person concerned. There is a document containing a set of rules prepared by the ruler Hammurabi who ruled Mesopotamia. It is the oldest law book in the world.