Many readers of our articles on the history of war and the events surrounding it have called for an article on the Israeli-Palestinian crisis. It is difficult to make a detailed account of a decades-long crisis based on complex facts.
But we thought we’d devote this article to giving you a brief overview of the origins of the Israeli-Palestinian crisis and the current situation. In addition to being a simple explanation, I would like to ask you to add comments that you know about this topic.
Israel and Palestine
Israel, east of the Mediterranean Sea, is, as you well know, the only Jewish state in the world. The so-called Palestinian Arabs say that the land that the Jews call Israel belongs to them. They want to establish a separate independent state called Palestine on that whole land or part of it. The so-called Israeli-Palestinian conflict is a dispute over who owns and controls this land.
Although both sides claim that their ownership of the land goes back more than 2,000 years, the current crisis is in the early part of the twentieth century. Due to the persecution in Europe, Jews emigrated (often illegally) to a land that belongs to the ottoman empire firstly and then to the British empire, where the Muslim-majority Arabs lived. One reason for this is that many countries, such as the United States and Canada, refuse to accept Jewish refugees. Even Britain accepted these Jewish refugees into their own country and Mandatory Palestine in a quota system.
After the official establishment of Israel, Jews from all over the world came to Israel. Jews are guaranteed Israeli citizenship wherever they are in the world.
However, when the Jews founded Israel, they vehemently opposed it, claiming ownership of the land. Attempts by the United Nations to segregate two parts of this territory from Jews and Arabs as a solution failed. Israel and other surrounding Arab countries fought a fierce battle for ownership of the land.
Today, the West Bank is nominally ruled by Palestinians, but most of it is Israeli construction. This is due to the Israeli military crackdown on Palestinian activities and sanctions, as well as the resettlement of Jews there. They say the West Bank does not belong to the Palestinians.
Another territory is called the Gaza strip where Palestinians live, controls by Hamas, an Islamic fundamentalist organization. This is also part of the Israeli barrier, but Israeli construction is not as visible here as on the West Bank. (look at the map)
The Promised Land
It is important to have a rough idea of what the “Promised Land” is when discussing the Israeli-Palestinian crisis. That is because the Jewish people, as mentioned earlier, are migrating from Europe to what is now Israel, believing in this Promised Land.
The Promised Land is mentioned in the Old Testament of the Bible.it is named Canaan. It is a long story that summarizes the creation of the Promised Land, which the Creator God promised to the patriarch Abraham and his children and grandchildren, and later to the Israelites, including Moses, who were slaves of the Egyptians, with an eternal inheritance it is called peace land.
Israelites are Descendants of twelve sons of Jacob who is a grandson of patriarch Abraham. The Old Testament Genesis tells us that the Creator God appeared to Jacob, blessed him, and named him Israel. Traditionally, the current Jewish people are believed to be descendants of the Israelites who arrived in the Promised Land.
It is said that these Israelites defeated the Philistines (Palestinians) who were then living in a part of the land of Canaan.
You see, there are similarities between the Bible’s view of the Jews who suffered as slaves in Egypt thousands of years ago, fleeing to establish the Promised Land as their kingdom, and the oppressed Jews of World War II to preserve their territory. In particular, the Bible says that the Jews were enslaved in Egypt because the king was dissatisfied with their prosperous life there. You know that Hitler used it as a reason to persecute the Jews for similar reasons.
In this way, the belief that both the current Israeli-Palestinian territories have their historical heritage has led to further confusion.
Jewish migration to the Middle East and the establishment of Israel
Due to the persecution in Europe, the Jews migrated to “mandatory Palestine” which was under the Ottoman rule in the Middle East, and then migrated to “Brit then came under British rule, by thinking that they should have an independent state of their own, from 1896-1948. The vast majority of them came as orphans after the Holocaust during World War II.
The Arabs who lived in that area at that time did not like this. They saw the large influx of Jews as an attempt by Britain to establish colonies. As a result, there were fierce clashes between the two sides that even the British could not control. Finally, in 1947, the United Nations demarcated the territory of Mandatory Palestine, partly Jews and partly Arabs. (look at the map)
Accordingly, the Arab-majority East Jerusalem and the West Bank were ceded to Jordan and the Gaza Strip to Egypt.
Although the Jews agreed to this solution, the Arabs saw it as long-term aggression by the Jews. so they fought against Jews.
However, on May 14, 1946, Israel became a Jewish state.
This emergence led to an eight-month-long war of terror between Israel and the Arab world (Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq)
Battles and bloodshed
The United Nations promised to allocate 56% of the territory to the Jews, but by the end of the war, they had conquered about 77% of the territory. More than 700,000 Palestinians were displaced and fled to the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. Eventually, those people became homeless orphans.
During the Six-Day War of 1967, Israeli forces again defeated Egypt, Syria, and Jordan and forcibly encamped in East Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights in Syria. They left these areas as recently as 2005.
In 1973, there was a war between the Arab countries and Israel. This Yom Kippur war is called because it began on Yom Kippur Day, a Jewish holiday.
Because of Palestinians uprising against Israel from 1987 to 1993 severe battles started during that time. These Palestinian uprisings against Israel are known as the intifada. The second uprising of Palestinians happened between 2000-2005.
In 2005, Hamas came to power in the Gaza Strip by an election. Most countries in the world refer to this organization as an Islamic terrorist organization. They refuse to recognize Israel as an independent state and demand that the Palestinians claim ownership of their former territory…
With the coming to power of Hamas, Israel begins to subjugate the borders of the Gaza Strip, including the maritime border. As a result, it is very difficult for the people in the Gaza Strip to transport goods. They have only one crossroads that can enter Egypt. There is no airport and no electricity supply. And the frequent clashes between Hamas and the Israeli army can cost the lives of Palestinians living in the Gaza Strip as well as Israelis living nearby. But it seems that most of the damage is done to the Palestinian people.
In addition to the Gaza Strip, there are refugees in camps in the West Bank, Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon. Approximately 5 million Palestinian refugees are reported to be living in these areas. The United Nations provide relief to them.
The Israeli settlement in the West Bank where Palestinians live is another factor that makes it difficult to resolve conflicts between the two sides. It is estimated that more than 500,000 Israelis have settled in the West Bank.
For this reason it will be difficult to mark the borders of the West Bank if it is not possible to establish an independent state called Palestine one day in the future. Also, Palestinians in the West Bank face daily hardships due to Israeli military intervention.
Many advocates of international law believe that Israeli settlements in the West Bank violate the Fourth Geneva Convention. It is prohibited to transfer a separate portion of an existing settlement to such a pledge. But Israel rejects this charge.
He spoke on the fundamental factors that contributed to the Israeli-Palestinian crisis. We now devote here to talk about a few more things you need to know about the present and the crisis.
The Importance of Jerusalem
Jerusalem is located between Israel and the West Bank. The crisis between the Israeli and Palestinian sides is further complicated by the inability to reach an agreement on ownership of the Holy City of Jerusalem. This is because both Jewish Jews and Islamic Palestinians consider Jerusalem a holy place to sacrifice their lives for. Like both religions, Jerusalem is considered by Christians to be the most sacred city in the world. Judaism is the patriarchal body of Islam and Christianity.
If there was the most bloodshed for one city in the world, that is Jerusalem, why is that?
According to Christianity, Jesus Christ who is considered to be the Savior and Son of God, surrounded a group of priests who were very old than him, ( christ was only 13 years old at that time) and preached in Synagogues while on his first “Passover” which is the Pilgrimage for Easter in Jewish society, after he was Betrayed, He was imprisoned and tortured in a conspiracy by the Jewish priests Annas and Caiaphas, Sentenced to death on the cross by Pontius Pilate, and He was crucified and buried after death, From that grave rose from the limits and reunited his disciples and ordered them to preach the religion in and around Jerusalem.
According to Islam, “the dome of the rock “or “Qubbat aṣ-Ṣakhra,” is the place where the Prophet Muhammad ascended to heaven, is located in Jerusalem. It is said that this is where the last sermon of the Prophet Muhammad was delivered, and this is where the Al-Aqsa Mosque, built in the 8th century by the leaders of the Umayyad caliph (Islamic Empire), is located. Al-Aqsa Mosque is the third most revered mosque in the world after Makkah and Al-Madinah.
According to Judaism and Jews, Abraham (That is why all three religions, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, are called “Abrahamic religions.”) who was one of the earliest authors of their religion, was preparing his son Isaac to sacrifice to God by tying hands and feet, in this place.
The “foundation stone” aka “Even haŠəṯīyyā ” which is considered to be the crossroads between heaven and earth, the most valuable place of worship of the Jewish faith, is situated in Jerusalem.
In addition, the “Western Wall” or ” Wailing Wall ” is located in Jerusalem, where they Weeping and praying to God to memories of the way Christians and Muslims occasionally destroyed Jewish settlements and burn their shrines. During the time of the Roman emperors and Muslim caliphs in Jerusalem, the “wailing wall” was the only place where the native Jews were allowed to pray to God in remembrance of their religion.
Disagreement of giving control of Jerusalem which is important, to a one-party and controlling by separating, was a major reason for getting this crisis worse.
Palestine, Palestine Liberation Organization, Fatah, and Hamas
Israel rejects recognition of Palestine as an independent state. Even a few countries including the USA, Australia did not accept Palestine as an independent state. But 136 countries from United Nations member countries which are like 70% Recognize Palestine as an independent state.
Palestine liberation organization (PLO) is considered as the main agent that represents Palestine. Palestine’s national authority is continued by this organization. This organization work as a semi-government. They represent Palestine in peace talks and other agreements with Israel.
Fatah is the chief authority governing both of the above organizations. Becomes the party that controls Palestinian politics. It was founded in 1964 by Yasser Arafat.
For decades after their founding, they had a very hostile attitude toward Israel. They carried out frequent attacks targeting Israeli civilians. They also created conflicts with the Israeli army. All of them happened in control of Yasser Arafat.
This situation was alleviated to some extent in 1993.that is when The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) demanded that they accept Israel’s right to occupy the territory and give Palestine official recognition instead. The real peace talk happened after that.
The current leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is Mahmoud Abbas. Abbas is doing a great job to get Official international recognition to Palestine.
Hamas is a political and military organization based on Islamic principles. They control the Gaza Strip, independent of Palestinian political authority. Hamas, which says its sole purpose is to destroy Israel, carries out several terrorist acts targeting Israel, including rocket attacks, suicide bombings, and the abduction and killing of Israeli soldiers and civilians on the Gaza border and they rejected the legality of Israel.
But Hamas ease this hostility by saying they would consider whether Israel could recognize its legitimacy if it recognized the Gaza Strip and the West Bank as Palestinian territories in 2017. But there is no result has been found.
There are many conflicts between the Palestinian Authority and Hamas Peace efforts.
The 1993 Oslo Accord is a program designed to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and achieve peace. Accordingly, the Palestinian Authority must acknowledge the legitimacy of Israel, and Israel must agree to establish a Palestinian state in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. The mediator here is the United States.
The world hoped that the peace talks would make some progress in 2001, but it collapsed when Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat rejected Israeli resolutions. Attempts to resume talks failed due to the subsequent Palestinian Second Intifada against Israel.
If the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is to be resolved, four key issues must be addressed. These are ownership of Jerusalem, settlements, and borders in the West Bank, Israeli security, and the situation of Palestinian refugees. Until an agreement is reached on an acceptable solution to these key issues it will be a dream to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and bring peace to the territory.