A really important telenovela called ‘Porus’ which has been produced spending 1216 crores of Indian rupees, is telecasting on a television channel these days. This is made, based on Alexander the great’s Indian attack and the life of Purushottam also know as king Porus who was the king of kingdom Paurava in India. Ancient kingdom Paurava was located between two rivers Chenab and Jhelum in Punjab. The movie called ‘Porus’ which includes the battle between an army of king Porus and Alexander the great in Hydaspes is started to telecast in India.

We are not going to talk about that movie in this letter but to inquire about the life of the third Alexander in Macedon also known as Alexander the great who was the main character based on this. Alexander the great is a warrior who builds an empire in India from Europe via land. He extended the empire to Punjab in India from Macedon via Turkey, Persia, Babilonia, Iraq, Afghanistan. He is recognized as an all-time veteran of martial arts. later time warrior like Hannibal, Caesar and Napoleon followed his order.

Greece written history had been started around B.C 750. Greece was ruled as City-states in past. There were city-states between 1500 and 2000, that is mentioned. Among these city-states, Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Thebes, Eretria, Chalcis, Syracuse and Masela were the main city-states. These city-states were famous as ‘Polis’.

Initially, these small city-states were under ordinary control but later on, they became under seignior’s control. Time passed by rich merchants joined that. Then there was some kind of attack between City administrator aristocrats and ordinary residents. Therefore ordinary residents took steps to empower famous residents. But in the end, unexpectedly these famous people became dictators and Oppressed the Residents. The dictatorship was ended while peoples Opposition. Later these city-states attempted to go over each other and made competition among them. Every city-state wanted to defeat other city-states and raise their city-state economically. Its results were making fight among them.

Among city-states Athens and Sparta were forceful. The civil war happened between them often. Therefore Greece city-states were divided not Collectively.

Macedonia is a small state situated in northern Greece. Mcdonough tribesmen were initial residents of there. According to Historian Herodotus, they were called Helens. (later every tribesman were called that name) McDonough’s did not have close relation with south Greece. After the Persian attack, Macedonia tried to stay away from Greece. This situation changed during king Philip the second in B.C382 to 336. He was the son of King Amyntas the third, and became king at age of 23.

He was the first to unite Greece which was ruled like divided cities, under a single administration. He believed the only way to prevent challenges in ancient city-states is to use power therefore he created a big army. Until then there were 10,000 soldiers and he expanded it to 24,000 and increased Cavalry to 3500 which was 600. He intended to make Macedonia which was backward, weak until then, powerful states. Macedonian boundary was expanded to Aegean sea from east. He planned to beat Greek city-states firstly and after that start a massive battle against his old enemy Persia.

Alexander the great's
Picture: Alexander the great’s

Firstly he Acquired Thessalia city in northern Greece and also he acquired Poteidaia and Paid. finally, he was able to acquire all city-states exclude Sparta. King Philip the second spread his power all over Greece Gradually, the next plan was to aggress Persia. In the General Assembly of city-states king Philip was selected as a leader for the fight against Persia ( he was murdered in B.C 336 therefore he could not place as leader).

King Philip the second had seven wives. Among them, Olympias were most famous. Princess Olympias were the daughter of King Neoptolemus in Epirote. after king Neoptolemus died his brother Arybbas was became king. He came over an agreement with Macedonian king Philip the second. As a result of that agreement princess, Olympias married King Philip the second in B.C 357. Their first child was the prince who was named Alexander the third. He was the one who became a great warrior and Triumphed the world.

Prince Alexander’s birth took place on July 20, 356 BC.he had a younger sister called Cleopatra. He grew up in the palace in Pella. Prince Alexander was a pleasant boy with shiny black eyes and curly hair. Small Alexander’s first teacher was Leonidas in Epirote. He was responsible to teach mathematics, horsemanship and archery to the prince. In B.C 343 prince’s education activities were assigned to Greek philosopher Aristotle. Small Alexander rarely met his father because he was constantly engaged in war. Therefore Aristotle like a father for him. Prince Alexander learned under philosopher Aristotle in a small village called Misa in Macedonia for three years. He learned medicine, philosophy, State administration, Poetry, Drama and science during that time.

16 years old prince Alexander named as Vice-Chancellor in Pella while king Philip the second was stating the battle with state Byzantine. Even though king Philip’s brigadier Antipater advised prince Alexander, other Generals thought the prince was an easily convincing puppet. But he showed his skills before pass one year. He helps his father to defeat Athenian and Theban armies by controlling Cavalry in B.C 338.

Princess Olympias wanted to give state control to Prince Alexander, one day. King Philip’s other wives had two daughters called Thessalonica and Caranus, the son called Philip. This prince Philip was called Philip the third in latter.

King Philip married a Cleopatra who was the daughter of his general and Chased queen Olympias who was the mother of Alexander, from the palace. Then the prince Alexander who did not leave his mother went to queen Olympias’s relatives from Epirote with Olympias close friends. There were frequent verbal attacks between father and son, and according to some historian’s opinion said queen Olympias motivated her brother to fight with king Philip and undertake Macedonia. Demetrius of Corinth lived with his mother until the father and son were reconciled.

Alexander’s sister Cleopatra married her mother queen Olympias’s brother king Alexander the first in B.C 336. In that wedding ceremony held in Macedonia capital Agia, King Philip was killed by a young Macedonian noble called Pausanias. The motive for the killing was never revealed. some people suspect that happens with the consent of Queen Olympias.

After King Philip died prince Alexander was the only owner of the crown of Macedonia. He had all support from the army. He killed everyone who became a threat to him after became the king. Queen Olympias who returned to the palace killed the daughter of Cleopatra who was the new wife of King Philip and forced Cleopatra to suicide.

Even though he became king of Macedonia he did not easily get the leadership of the Corinthian League. South Greek city-states were happy about King Philip’s death and the democratic Athens hoped to get the leadership of that league. The independent business was arising all over Greece. king Alexander sent his army to south Greece and took that area for himself at that moment. He was able to be the leader of the Corinthian league.

He recreated the agreement of that league in autumn B.C 336 and took steps to build friendships with member states and that member states agreed to his leadership. But Sparta rejected to join with him. The league agreed to send Alexander’s army to fight against Persia and promised to give support for that.


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